Health and Fitness

Writing Question

Writing Question

Case Study 2 – Fitness and Health

About 24 million people in the United States did yoga at least once in 2013, and participation has been increasing by 6.5 percent annually, according to the Sports and Fitness Industry Association. A survey commissioned by Yoga Journal revealed that more than 44 percent of people who don’t practice yoga are interested in trying it.

Enter Adriene Mishler, an actress, yoga teacher and entrepreneur from Austin, Texas. Adriene co-founded Find What Feels Good (, a video subscription website that provides creative yoga and yoga lifestyle content to some 2 million subscribers. In addition, Adriene also produces and hosts Yoga With Adriene (YWA), a successful online community that provides high quality yoga instruction at no cost to inspire people of all shapes and sizes across the globe. The development of free yoga videos came from Mishler’s mission to get the tools of yoga into schools and homes ( YWA has been recognized by Google as the most searched workout, has been recognized by the Wall Street Journal, and was awarded a Streamy in Health and Wellness.

Your task:

Research the exploding online fitness and health industry and write a 1 to 2 page paper on importance of fitness, and include in your research resources you have found which support the future of online fitness.

Requirements: 1-2 pages

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Conduct an assessment on the following body systems

Conduct an assessment on the following body systems

Conduct an assessment on the following body systems:

You may conduct the assessment on a fellow student, friend, or family member. Remember to secure their permission.

Collect both subjective and objective data using the process described in the textbook.

Write a summary of the assessment (subjective & objective data in narrative note) and the skills utilized. Answer the following 3 questions in the summary. Do not disclose any patient identifiers.

  1. What skills (assessment techniques) were utilized during the assessment?
  2. What subjective data did you collect? (list your findings)
  3. What objective data did you collect? (list your findings)

Summary on a WORD document. APA format isn’t required.

Requirements: 2 pages

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Dawn of Humanity Film Questions

Dawn of Humanity Film Questions

  1. What are the primary differences between Australopithecus Sediba and Homo Naledi?


  1. What made Raymond Dart and his followers believe that early hominins were violent and aggressive (killer apes)?


  1. What evidence eventually disproved his hypothesis?


  1. Why were ‘small scientists’ needed in the excavation stage for the Naledi cave?
  2. Why were Homo Naledi classified in the genus Homo rather than Australopithecus? Be sure to discuss both skeleton and cranium.


  1. How many bones and fragments were eventually pulled out of the Homo Naledi cave?


  1. What makes researchers believe that the bones were intentionally placed there? In your opinion, is this a ‘cemetery’?

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140 1.1 Choose Poems/Share Sensory Experiences

140 1.1 Choose Poems/Share Sensory Experiences

140 1.1 Choose Poems/Share Sensory Experiences

Choosing a Poem

you will choose a poem and break it down into five sensory components: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing. From these five components, you will choose a singular experience that directly relates to each sense: something to see, something to smell, something to touch, something to taste, and something to hear. You will share your experiences with each of these five components and then develop a series of five collages.

here is the poem.…

“There is a gold light in certain old paintings” BY DONALD JUSTICE


There is a gold light in certain old paintings

That represents a diffusion of sunlight.

It is like happiness, when we are happy.

It comes from everywhere and from nowhere at once, this light,

And the poor soldiers sprawled at the foot of the cross

Share in its charity equally with the cross.


Orpheus hesitated beside the black river.

With so much to look forward to he looked back.

We think he sang then, but the song is lost.

At least he had seen once more the beloved back.

I say the song went this way: O prolong

Now the sorrow if that is all there is to prolong.


The world is very dusty, uncle. Let us work.

One day the sickness shall pass from the earth for good.

The orchard will bloom; someone will play the guitar.

Our work will be seen as strong and clean and good.

And all that we suffered through having existed


Shall be forgotten as though it had never existed.

Sharing Your Sensory Experience.

For the first part of the project, you will need to record yourself reading the poem aloud and then experiencing each of your five components. Verbally express your response to each component using the following criteria:

  • How does it make you feel?
  • What does it look/smell/taste/feel/sound like to you?
  • Why did you choose that specific component?
  • Which portion of the poem do you feel it corresponds to?

Submit still images of your sensory objects that represent taste, touch, smell, and sight

Requirements: 300

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WK 4 D2 HHS 435 200 words total

WK 4 D2 HHS 435 200 words total

Right of Privacy

The right of privacy is a major component of confidentiality. Chapter 22 discusses the importance and application of this right. Discuss your ideas in terms of the human service profession of how the right to privacy can be protected in an evolving, open information society? What laws pertain specifically to human service workers in protecting/honoring patient/client confidentiality? Provide a specific circumstance/case/example drawn from real life. Respond to two of your classmates’ posts.

Requirements: Discussion | 1 pages, Single spaced

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HR491Senior Seminar in Human Resource Development

HR491Senior Seminar in Human Resource Development

Unit 2: Current Event Exercise


Each student is required to develop an 8-10 slide Power Point Presentation using APA format (Title Page, Running Header/Titles and Reference page with references properly cited in the body of the presentation).

The presentation will summarize an HR business case of your chosen HR current event or ULO. The current event can be from the news, the employee’s organization, or other current event.

The presentation must clearly articulate how the Human Resource Management function of an organization positively contributes to organizational outcomes. The final presentation slide is required to include all references in APA format.

Requirements: More in depth guide with all the details.

Unit Two ULOs

  • ULO#1: Explain how organizational goals and objectives are linked to motivated and engaged employees
  • ULO#2: Explain why organizations resist change
  • ULO#3: Describe two ways how leaders should support change

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Common Digestive Conditions

Common Digestive Conditions

Common Digestive ConditionsCommon Digestive Conditions? In everyone’s life, they must have experienced a digestion disorder, whether it is a lingering gastrointestinal ailment requiring lifestyle change or is a meal that doesn’t agree with our stomach. According to Peyskensn & Penaloza (2017), digestive problems are extremely common in people afflicting one in five people.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

When stomach bile or acid flows into the food pipe causing lining irritation, it causes gastroesophageal. Many people experience heartburn, but when it occurs regularly, it indicates a sign of gastroesophageal disease. The disease mostly presents as heartburn which, when uncontrolled, can lead to lining wearing of the esophagus, leading to bleeding. Poddar (2019) notes that the condition can also cause extreme chest pains, which sometimes are mistaken for heart attack.

The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) opens to allow food in the stomach and closes to stop stomach acids from flowing back into the esophagus in a normal digestion. However, when the LES is weak and relaxed, it lets the stomach acids flow back in the throat, which causes heartburn hence GERD. One can control the disease by taking two hours to rest after a meal before bedtime. However, over-the-counter medication can help reduce the occasional heartburns, but chronic ones need prescriptions and sometimes surgery.

Chronic Diarrhea

Another form of Common Digestive Conditions is Diarrhea. It can be termed as loose stool, which is impossible to ignore. Diarrhea that happens more than twice and lasts for a week can be a medical concern. It can be caused by different things, including the inability of the body to absorb food, infection, an endocrine disorder, or a disease, for example, irritable bowel syndrome. Sometimes, some medications cause diarrhea as a side effect. However, chronic diarrhea may indicate a more serious problem that needs more professional medical attention. The underlying cause of diarrhea should be treated as quickly as possible, which needs to eliminate some foods and medicine and improve hygiene.

Chronic Constipation

Also Chronic Constipation is a Common Digestive Condition. It occurs when people get fewer than three bowel movements in a week or longer where the stools are hard and difficult to pass. Some other symptoms of constipation include straining when passing stool and feeling as though there is a blockage in the rectum. There are no evident research results for the cause of chronic constipation.

Common Digestive Conditions

However, colon or rectum blockage, nerve problems around the colon or rectum, difficulty with elimination muscles, and hormonal changes in the body can cause chronic constipation. Although occasional constipation is normal, some people experience chronic constipation that interferes with their normal daily life. The condition can be treated by taking lots of water and fluids, managing stress, staying active, taking foods low in fiber, and creating regular bowel movements.


Another Common Digestive Conditions is Gastroenteritis. It is a short-term illness sometimes called the stomach flu caused by a bacterial or viral infection and swelling of the digestive system. The disease has symptoms like diarrhea, fever, stomach pains, crumbing, vomiting, nausea, and headache. The most common cause of the disease is a virus, including rotavirus and norovirus. Other causes of the disease can be through contact with an infected person, consuming contaminated food, and being unhygienic. The best way to treat the infection is by taking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration, maintaining hygiene to prevent the spread of the infection. As for children, standard vaccination of rotavirus should be followed.

Stomach Ulcers as a Common Digestive Conditions

Moreover, Common Digestive Conditions include stomach Ulcers. Ulcers are breaks or holes formed at the lining of the upper parts of the small intestine or the stomach that contact enzymes stomach acids. The stomach has acids that help in food digestion and protects the stomach against microbes. Also, the stomach produces a thick layer of mucus which protects the body tissues from the acid. However, when the protective mucus becomes inactive and ineffective, the acid starts damaging the body tissues causing ulcers (Almurshidi, & Abu-Naser, 2017).  The disease has some symptoms which include, indigestion, causing stomach discomforts, heartburn, and GERD.

Other symptoms include bloating, burping, nausea, and vomiting, and sometimes weight loss. One can prevent the disease by taking many fruits and vegetables, foods high in soluble fiber, probiotics, and not consuming alcohol frequently.  It can be treated by protecting what causes more acid in the body. However, surgical treatments can be done when one experiences consistent bleeding, re-occurring ulcers, and lack of bowel movements.

In conclusion, the digestive system works as a tool for breaking down food. However, if some parts of the system are not working properly, digestive disorders may develop, such as chronic constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcers, gallstones, or diarrhea. Some digestive disorders, when not treated, can cause serious problems.

Common Digestive Conditions References

Almurshidi, S. H., & Abu-Naser, S. S. (2017). Stomach disease intelligent tutoring system.

Peyskensn, L., & Penaloza, A. (2017). Common digestive symptoms as a rare presentation of prostatic cancer. New Horizons in Clinical Case Reports, 1, 21.

Poddar, U. (2019). Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children. Pediatrics and international child health, 39(1), 7-12.


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Common Digestive Conditions

What is autism?

What is autism?

What is autism?

What is autism? Autism is a wide range of disorders that impair speech, non-verbal communication, and social behaviors. According to the Centers for Disease Control, about 1 in 54 children are diagnosed with autism (Lord et al., 2018). The condition affects the brain development of an individual, which influences how they relate with others. It creates problems when interacting with others since communication is a challenge. Repetitive behavioral patterns can also characterize the disorder. Autism has a wide variety of signs which describe its spectrum.

In answering the question “What is autism,?” there are several subtypes of autism that are caused by different factors, such as genetic and environmental influences. Autism is a spectrum condition with various challenges. The challenges faced by patients with this illness vary, whereby some can live independently while others require more support in daily living than others.

The development of autism can be attributed to sensory sensitivities or other medical issues. Conditions such as seizures, sleep disorders, or gastrointestinal illnesses comprise health issues that lead to autism (Lord et al., 2018). Also, mental health problems such as anxiety, challenges in concentration, and depression can cause autism.

The first symptoms of the illness often occur when an individual is two or three years of age. The early symptoms include decreased eye contact, indifference to their loved ones, and lack of responses to conversations; However, in rare cases, the disease can be diagnosed for a child aged 18 months (Lord et al., 2018). Other children grow normal until later years in life when they suddenly lose interest in activities, become withdrawn, and fail in language abilities. The level of severity for the children can vary from low functioning to high functioning. It is recommended that interventions for the conditions be applied early since it results in positive impacts later in life.

Children with autism have a high risk for the illness if there is a family member with autism. There are certain combinations of genes that increase the risk of a child being diagnosed with autism. The disease can be hereditary for autism spectrum disorders such as fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome (Muhle, Trentacoste, and Rapin, 2014).

Genetic mutations can also raise the vulnerability to the illness, although this can also occur spontaneously. It is because autism impacts the growth of brain cells and communication. Autism is likely to occur four times more in boys compared to girls. Early detection for the illness improves the quality of life for children with autism.

No medical test is used to diagnose the sickness; instead, how the child speaks, and acts is analyzed based on their age and comparison to others. In 2016, about 2 in 1000 persons globally were estimated to have autism. However, the rate of autism diagnosis in the United States is high at 0.7%.


Muhle, R., Trentacoste, S. V., & Rapin, I. (2014). The genetics of autism. Pediatrics113(5), e472-e486.

Lord, C., Elsabbagh, M., Baird, G., & Veenstra-Vanderweele, J. (2018). Autism spectrum disorder. The Lancet392(10146), 508-520.

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What is autism?

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome 

Irritable Bowel Syndrome 

Irritable bowel syndrome is a problem experienced by many people that affects the large intestine. Not all people have signs and symptoms as they can control them by managing diet, stress, and lifestyle. However, others have symptoms like bloating, abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, or diarrhea, which needs to be managed for quite some time. In others, the bowel movement changes in appearance, while others change how often they have bowel movements (Varjú, Farkas, Hegyi, Garami, Szabó, et al., 2017).

Sometimes the IBS becomes more persistent to the point of seeing a doctor as they may indicate a sign of more severe conditions like cancer. Such symptoms include night diarrhea, weight loss, experiencing bleeding, which is a symptom of severe conditions like anal fissures, hemorrhoids, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Other serious signs include unexplained vomiting, having difficulties swallowing, and persistent pain that isn’t relieved by bowel movements or gas.

IBS is caused mainly by intestinal muscle contraction, whereby if they are more robust and last longer than usual, they can cause bloating and diarrhea. Also, when the intestinal contractions are weaker, they slow down food passage leading to hard and dry stool, causing bleeding. Abnormalities in the nervous digestion system can cause poor coordination between the intestines and the brain, leading to an overreaction in the normal digestion process, which in return causes abdominal discomforts when passing gas or stool. These abnormalities cause pain, diarrhea, and constipation.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome can also be caused by severe infections caused by bacteria or viruses, spreading to the large intestines. People who have experienced a lot of stress, especially during childhood, tend to have Irritable Bowel Syndrome symptoms. Also, the intestines have viruses that lay a crucial role in people’s health. Changes in those gut microbes can cause IBS.

There is no proven treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. However, medications manage and relieve the symptoms (Moayyedi, Andrews, MacQueen, Korownyk, Marsiglio, et al., 2019). Most home remedies for controlling IBS include physical exercise, eating smaller meals, minimizing stress, avoiding spicy and deep-fried foods, and taking probiotics to relieve gas. However, if the problem persists, some medication can help relieve the problem, including Alosetron, which slows the waste movements and relaxes the colon. Eluxadoline, Rifaximin, Lubiprostone, and Linaclotide are used to control muscle spasms, constipation and ease pain.



  1. Cramping and abdominal pains related to abnormal passing bowel movement
  2. Different bowel movement appearance
  3. Changes in bowel movement occasions
  4. Night diarrhea, weight loss, and bleeding during bowel movements
  5. Unexplained vomiting, difficulties swallowing, and persistent abdominal pain.


  1. Contractions of muscles in the intestine.
  2. Nervous system abnormalities
  3. Severe bacterial infection
  4. Continuous exposure to stress.
  5. Changes in bacteria’s found in the intestines.


  1. Home remedies include participation in regular exercises, consuming smaller meals, avoiding spicy foods, minimizing stress, and taking probiotics.
  2. Hospital medication to relieve the disease includes Eluxadoline, Rifaximin, Lubiprostone, Linaclotide, and Alosetron used to control muscle spasms, constipation, and ease pain.





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Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder

bpd graphic world mental health awareness monthBorderline Personality Disorder is a condition that affects mood instability and makes it difficult for people to form relationships. According to Brüne (2016), unstable relationships, fear of being abandoned, inability to regulate emotions, feelings of depression, and high-risk behaviors are some of the characteristics of the condition. According to APA (2013), people with the disorder have increased chances of committing suicide. Brüne (2016) says that people suffering from the condition have paranoid ideas, and they always have self-injurious behavior. There are several intervention measures that are being used to manage borderline personality disorder. These intervention measures are generalized to all populations, but they can be adapted to work in specific circumstances such as in sexual minorities.

Causes of the disorder

Several factors predispose a person to borderline personality disorder. Genetics is one factor that can contribute a person to suffering from the condition. According to NHS (2019), genes a person inherits from their parents can make them vulnerable to the disorder. Researchers claim that if an identical twin has the disease. The chances are high that the order twin has the condition. However, there is no reliable research that ties genes to borderline personality disorder. Another factor that is likely to cause the disease is brain chemicals. NHS (2019) reports that people suffering from the disorder are believed to be having something wrong with their neurotransmitters, particularly serotonin. When the amount of serotonin produced is altered, it leads to depression and aggression.

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Another factor that is likely to cause the disease is brain chemicals. NHS (2019) reports that people suffering from the disorder are believed to be having something wrong with their neurotransmitters, particularly serotonin. When the amount of serotonin produced is altered, it leads to depression and aggression. Another factor that causes borderline personality disorder is problems with brain development. NHS (2019) reports that brain scans of people with the disease reveal that they have a small amygdala, hippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex. The development of these parts of the brain is affected by the early upbringing of a child. These sections of the brain are for regulating moods, and therefore underdevelopment of these parts of the brain leads to the inability of an individual to control their tempers. Environmental factors are also responsible for causing the disorder. Some of these environmental factors are molestations as a child, neglect by parents, and growing up in a dysfunctional family. Unresolved childhood issues such as anger and fear lead a child to grow with distress and, therefore, a distorted thinking pattern that makes them vulnerable to the disorder.

Treatment approaches to borderline personality disorder


This is one of the conventional methods for treating the disorder. Its application leads to a reduction of the symptoms that a person with the condition exhibits over time. According to Biskin & Paris (2012), several types of psychotherapy exist that are for managing the disorder. Some of the popular psychotherapies used to manage the condition are dialectical behavior and mentalization-based treatment.

Dialectical behavior therapy

According to Biskins & Paris (2012), this psychotherapy was the first to be found useful in managing borderline personality disorder. This treatment combines Eastern philosophy with behavioral therapies in treating a patient. This therapy is divided into individual and group sessions. In these sessions, the participants are taught skills in mindfulness, regulation of emotions, interpersonal effectiveness, and distress tolerance. Dialectical behavior therapy is made to last for a year. The patient can consult with the psychotherapist over the phone. May, Richardi & Barth (2016) claim that this intervention mechanism was developed by Marsha Linehan in the 1990s, and it was for treating women from a borderline personality disorder. The term “dialectical” in the intervention mechanism refers to the use of “acceptance and change necessities for improvement.” This psychotherapy method treats maladaptive behaviors by replacing them with good behaviors. May, Richard & Barth (2016) affirm that the method is effective in treating conditions like mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorders, and eating disorders.

How the intervention is used

As indicated earlier, dialectical behavior therapy involves two sessions, one of which is the individual session. During this session, an individual meets with the certified therapist on a one-on-one basis. The therapist ensures the training achieves its therapeutic objectives. The role of the therapist in these individual sessions is to motivate the patient in applying the skills taught to contain the disorder. In group therapy, the members offer each other mutual support through sharing of experiences and encouraging one another. In the group-based sessions, there are also trained therapists who lead the process. Psychology Today (n.d) reports that the training sessions last for two hours, and the group usually meets for about six weeks. In these sessions, members are given questions that test what they have learned from the sessions.

Mentalization-based treatment

Mentalization is the ability of an individual to recognize their mental states. It involves knowing your mental state and the ability to think of the impact of your actions on other people. Mentalization-base therapy focuses on enabling a person to recognize their thoughts and think about the outcome of their behavior. In developing this therapy, Bateman and Fonagy believed that people with the condition are unable to acknowledge their mental states because of problems they encountered as children, which affected the growth of their mentalization. In using this therapy, the focus of the therapist is in the present mental state of the patient and not the past. The therapist works towards enabling the patient to recognize their mental states and emotions. While administering this therapy, the therapist does not give advice and opinion on how the patient should behave. Instead, the therapist helps the patient explore their mental states and how to mentalize. Salters-Pedneault (2019) reports that research supports the use of therapy in managing borderline personality disorder. A randomized controlled study conducted by researchers showed that patients suffering from the disease who were exposed to the mentalization-based therapy reported a reduction in self-harm, depression, and anxiety.

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According to Morken, Binder, Arefjord, & Karterud (2019), a study conducted regarding the application of mentalization-based therapy in people with borderline personality disorder reveals that it increases mentalization in patients. Morken, Binder, Arefjord, & Karterud (2019) say that the therapy, just like dialectical behavior therapy, consists of two sessions, namely individual and group therapies. There are specific aspects of mentalizing that the therapy focuses on. According to Morken, Binder, Arefjord & Karterud (2019), there are several domains of mentalization-based therapy which can be used by the therapist. They are mentalization process, relational mentalization, effective mentalizing narrative, and non-mentalizing modes. The mentalization process is concerned with the mentalizing process. Relational mentalization involves focusing on the relationship between the therapist and the patient. The mentalizing effective narrative requires that therapists focus on narratives and should be concerned with the effect while non-mentalizing modes are applicable when the patient is not in mentalizing mode.


According to Salters-Pedneault (2019), drugs used to manage anxiety and depression have been found to reduce the symptoms of borderline personality disorders. Currently, there are no specific medications for treating borderline personality disorder. The drugs that are presently being used are those that reduce the symptoms of the disease, but they don’t lead to complete healing from the condition. Among some of the medications that are used are those for managing psychological conditions that usually occur with the condition like major depressive disorder. Independently, medications may not be effective in controlling the disorder, and so they are used with other intervention mechanisms such as psychotherapy.

Types of medications used


Initially, antidepressants were designed for people suffering from a major depressive disorder. Salters-Pedneault (2019) claims that it was also for managing other mental conditions characterized by low mood. The antidepressants that have been approved for use in managing borderline personality disorder are monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants. Salters-Pedneault (2019) reports that studies indicate that antidepressants are effective in managing sadness, anxiety, and low moods. Some of the commonly used antidepressants are Nardil, Prozac, Zoloft, Effexor, and Wellbutrin.


Early psychiatrists discovered that the symptoms of the condition were in the border of psychosis and neurosis. This is why they named the disease “borderline” to imply in the border between the two conditions. Early medications for the disease were antipsychotics. Later, it was found that the antipsychotics were effective in treating other disorders that were no-psychotics. Salters-Pedneault (2019) claims that antipsychotics reduce anxiety, anger, impulsiveness, and paranoid thinking. Some commonly used antipsychotics are Haldol, Zyprexa, Clozaril, Seroquel, and Risperdal.

Mood stabilizers

These medications are used to stabilize the moods of individuals. One of the characteristics of borderline personality behavior is the presence of mood swings. Some of the drugs that are used in this category are Lithobid, Depakote, Lamictal, and Tegretol.


Usually, people with the disorder experience anxiety. Anxiolytics are drugs that the patients suffering from the condition are given to manage the disease. Salters-Pedneault (2019) says that little research has been done to ascertain whether the drugs are efficient in treating the condition. There also some anxiety drugs that, when used, can worsen the condition of the patient. This, therefore, requires that proper consultations are done before prescribing the drugs. According to Salters-Pedneault (2019), Benzodiazepines are particularly dangerous when individuals who abuse drugs use it since it is addictive. The anxiolytics commonly used to combat the disorder are Ativan, Klonopin, Xanax, Valium, and Buspar.

The application of the treatment methods in treating marginalized people

Rivera-Segarra et al. (2014) claim that stigmatization has been a hindrance for people with mental conditions from seeking care. Among the marginalized populations are sexual minorities such as bisexuals, gays, and lesbians. Plöderl et al. (2017) allege that sexual minorities experience barriers when seeking treatment for mental illnesses since there is a lack of specific treatment for sexual minorities. Plöderl et al. (2017) further claim that sexual minorities are at risk since they have more stressing factors compared to the rest of the population. Apart from the usual stressors that other people have, other stressing factors for them are fear of being discriminated against and internalized homophobia associated with hiding one’s sexual orientation. Medications operate in the same manner for all people irrespective of their sexual orientations, and therefore there are no different medicines for managing BPD in sexual minorities.

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Therapies in treating sexual minorities with BPD

For sexual minorities, invalidation is the biggest issue that affects them. The dialectical behavioral therapy, which, initially, was developed for treating people with suicidal tendencies, has been adapted for the treatment of people across different settings. According to Skerven, Whicker & LeMaire (2019), the majority of the people being diagnosed with BPD identify as gays, lesbians, or bisexuals. Skerven, Whicker & LeMaire (2019) reiterate the findings of Bradford Reich & Zanarini (2008) that sexual minorities accounted for 75% of patients diagnosed with BPD. Research also affirms that sexual minorities are more likely to have suicidal thoughts and self-harm compared to other people (Whicker & Le Maries, 2019). Dialectical behavioral therapy is being used by therapists to reduce stressor and help the patients regain their self-respect so that they can cope with stress. DBT is the best intervention currently available for sexual minorities since other interventions are aimed at reducing the stressors instead of teaching the patient how to cope with the stress. Skerven, Whicker & LeMaire (2019) allude that DBT addresses the environmental stressors and self-esteem, and therefore it is an effective intervention for the Lesbians Gay Bisexual Transgender Queer (LGBTQ) community. Dialectical behavioral therapy is made of four significant components, namely emotional regulation, interpersonal effectiveness, core mindfulness, and distress tolerance. The four modules of DBT are meant for enabling the client to rein on their emotions. Through individual and group therapies, a therapist guides the client into coping with all kinds of stigma and how they can accept their identity.


A borderline personality disorder is a mental condition that makes a patient have suicidal thoughts, and this can lead to unstable relationships. This condition is characterized by mood swings, whereby the moods of an individual keep changing. Several factors exist which predispose a person to the disorder. They are environmental, brain chemicals, and genetics. Environmental factors are those concerned with the upbringing of an individual. If a person is brought up in a dysfunctional home where abuses are the norm, chances are high that they will develop the disorder when they are grown up. On brain chemicals, lack of proper development of the brain leads to an imbalance in chemicals in the brain. This leads to the inability of an individual to effectively balance emotions. Genetics, even though not yet proven, scientifically is believed to lead to the condition. There are several interventions for treating borderline personality disorder. There are therapies, such as dialectical behavioral and mentalization-based therapies. Medications such as antidepressants are also used to manage the condition. These interventions are used to treat BPD across many settings. Among the minorities that the interventions are used in are sexual minorities. There are generally no specific intervention measures for treating sexual minorities suffering from BPD. The existing mechanisms, such as dialectical behavioral therapy, have been adapted to fit their situation. On medicines, there are no unique medicines for managing BPD for sexual minorities since drugs work in the same manner irrespective of individuals’ sexual orientation.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.

Biskin, R., & Paris, J. (2012). Management of borderline personality disorder. Canadian Medical Association Journal184(17), 1897-1902. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.112055

Borderline personality disorder – Causes. (2019). Retrieved 13 November 2019, from

Brüne, M. (2016). Borderline Personality Disorder. Evolution, Medicine, And Public Health2016(1), 52-66. doi: 10.1093/emph/eow002

Dialectical Behavior Therapy | Psychology Today. (2019). Retrieved 13 November 2019, from

May, J., Richardi, T., & Barth, K. (2016). Dialectical behavior therapy as a treatment for borderline personality disorder. Mental Health Clinician6(2), 62-67. doi: 10.9740/mhc.2016.03.62

Morken, K., Binder, P., Arefjord, N., & Karterud, S. (2019). Mentalization-Based Treatment From the Patients’ Perspective – What Ingredients Do They Emphasize?. Frontiers in Psychology10. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01327

Plöderl, M., Kunrath, S., Cramer, R., Wang, J., Hauer, L., & Fartacek, C. (2017). Sexual orientation differences in treatment expectation, alliance, and outcome among patients at risk for suicide in a public psychiatric hospital. BMC Psychiatry17(1). doi: 10.1186/s12888-017-1337-8

Rivera-Segarra, E., Rivera, G., López-Soto, R., Crespo-Ramos, G., & Marqués-Reyes, D. (2014). Stigmatization Experiences among People Living with Borderline Personality Disorder in Puerto Rico. The Qualitative Report, 19(15), 1-18. Retrieved from

Salters-Pedneault, K. (2019). Borderline Personality Disorder Medications Can Treat Symptoms. Retrieved 13 November 2019, from

Salters-Pedneault, K. (2019). Mentalization-Based Therapy May Help Borderline Personality Disorder. Retrieved 13 November 2019, from

Salters-Pedneault, K. (2019). Mentalization-Based Therapy May Help Borderline Personality Disorder. Retrieved 13 November 2019, from

Skerven, K., Whicker, D., & LeMaire, K. (2019). Applying dialectical behavior therapy to structural and internalized stigma with LGBTQ+ clients. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist12. doi: 10.1017/s1754470x18000235

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