Writing Question

Writing Question

Case Study 2 – Fitness and Health

About 24 million people in the United States did yoga at least once in 2013, and participation has been increasing by 6.5 percent annually, according to the Sports and Fitness Industry Association. A survey commissioned by Yoga Journal revealed that more than 44 percent of people who don’t practice yoga are interested in trying it.

Enter Adriene Mishler, an actress, yoga teacher and entrepreneur from Austin, Texas. Adriene co-founded Find What Feels Good (www.yogawithadriene.vhx.tv/members-only), a video subscription website that provides creative yoga and yoga lifestyle content to some 2 million subscribers. In addition, Adriene also produces and hosts Yoga With Adriene (YWA), a successful online community that provides high quality yoga instruction at no cost to inspire people of all shapes and sizes across the globe. The development of free yoga videos came from Mishler’s mission to get the tools of yoga into schools and homes (yogawithadriene.com). YWA has been recognized by Google as the most searched workout, has been recognized by the Wall Street Journal, and was awarded a Streamy in Health and Wellness.

Your task:

Research the exploding online fitness and health industry and write a 1 to 2 page paper on importance of fitness, and include in your research resources you have found which support the future of online fitness.

Requirements: 1-2 pages

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Conduct an assessment on the following body systems

Conduct an assessment on the following body systems

Conduct an assessment on the following body systems:

You may conduct the assessment on a fellow student, friend, or family member. Remember to secure their permission.

Collect both subjective and objective data using the process described in the textbook.

Write a summary of the assessment (subjective & objective data in narrative note) and the skills utilized. Answer the following 3 questions in the summary. Do not disclose any patient identifiers.

  1. What skills (assessment techniques) were utilized during the assessment?
  2. What subjective data did you collect? (list your findings)
  3. What objective data did you collect? (list your findings)

Summary on a WORD document. APA format isn’t required.

Requirements: 2 pages

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Dawn of Humanity Film Questions

Dawn of Humanity Film Questions

  1. What are the primary differences between Australopithecus Sediba and Homo Naledi?


  1. What made Raymond Dart and his followers believe that early hominins were violent and aggressive (killer apes)?


  1. What evidence eventually disproved his hypothesis?


  1. Why were ‘small scientists’ needed in the excavation stage for the Naledi cave?
  2. Why were Homo Naledi classified in the genus Homo rather than Australopithecus? Be sure to discuss both skeleton and cranium.


  1. How many bones and fragments were eventually pulled out of the Homo Naledi cave?


  1. What makes researchers believe that the bones were intentionally placed there? In your opinion, is this a ‘cemetery’?

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140 1.1 Choose Poems/Share Sensory Experiences

140 1.1 Choose Poems/Share Sensory Experiences

140 1.1 Choose Poems/Share Sensory Experiences

Choosing a Poem

you will choose a poem and break it down into five sensory components: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing. From these five components, you will choose a singular experience that directly relates to each sense: something to see, something to smell, something to touch, something to taste, and something to hear. You will share your experiences with each of these five components and then develop a series of five collages.

here is the poem.


“There is a gold light in certain old paintings” BY DONALD JUSTICE


There is a gold light in certain old paintings

That represents a diffusion of sunlight.

It is like happiness, when we are happy.

It comes from everywhere and from nowhere at once, this light,

And the poor soldiers sprawled at the foot of the cross

Share in its charity equally with the cross.


Orpheus hesitated beside the black river.

With so much to look forward to he looked back.

We think he sang then, but the song is lost.

At least he had seen once more the beloved back.

I say the song went this way: O prolong

Now the sorrow if that is all there is to prolong.


The world is very dusty, uncle. Let us work.

One day the sickness shall pass from the earth for good.

The orchard will bloom; someone will play the guitar.

Our work will be seen as strong and clean and good.

And all that we suffered through having existed


Shall be forgotten as though it had never existed.

Sharing Your Sensory Experience.

For the first part of the project, you will need to record yourself reading the poem aloud and then experiencing each of your five components. Verbally express your response to each component using the following criteria:

  • How does it make you feel?
  • What does it look/smell/taste/feel/sound like to you?
  • Why did you choose that specific component?
  • Which portion of the poem do you feel it corresponds to?

Submit still images of your sensory objects that represent taste, touch, smell, and sight

Requirements: 300

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Readcase and write6to7singlespacepagesreview

Readcase and write6to7singlespacepagesreview

Please follow requirements carefully,

and must use tools for Dimond-E analysis (I will post useable tool after selecting)

and I will post all of the materials that could help you to write case analysis better.

Please must use at least 60% of 4pa toolkit. To research each of tool detail, I uploaded e-text book.

each of tool you could use e-text to research and must make sure use 60% of all tool in this case analysis. Thank you

9 Attachments

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WK 4 D2 HHS 435 200 words total

WK 4 D2 HHS 435 200 words total

Right of Privacy

The right of privacy is a major component of confidentiality. Chapter 22 discusses the importance and application of this right. Discuss your ideas in terms of the human service profession of how the right to privacy can be protected in an evolving, open information society? What laws pertain specifically to human service workers in protecting/honoring patient/client confidentiality? Provide a specific circumstance/case/example drawn from real life. Respond to two of your classmates’ posts.

Requirements: Discussion | 1 pages, Single spaced

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HR491Senior Seminar in Human Resource Development

HR491Senior Seminar in Human Resource Development

Unit 2: Current Event Exercise


Each student is required to develop an 8-10 slide Power Point Presentation using APA format (Title Page, Running Header/Titles and Reference page with references properly cited in the body of the presentation).

The presentation will summarize an HR business case of your chosen HR current event or ULO. The current event can be from the news, the employee’s organization, or other current event.

The presentation must clearly articulate how the Human Resource Management function of an organization positively contributes to organizational outcomes. The final presentation slide is required to include all references in APA format.

Requirements: More in depth guide with all the details.

Unit Two ULOs

  • ULO#1: Explain how organizational goals and objectives are linked to motivated and engaged employees
  • ULO#2: Explain why organizations resist change
  • ULO#3: Describe two ways how leaders should support change

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health policy and medicaid.

Discussion Questions:

1. Discuss how health policy initiatives are used to guide and direct your clinical practice as an Advanced Practice Nurse.

2. Please locate the Medicaid eligibility criteria for 3 different states. Compare and contrast the eligibility criteria, then discuss the implications of the criteria for people in each state.

Submission Details

  • Please make sure you are using scholarly 3-4 references and they should not be older than 5 years. Your posts/references must be in APA format. 600 words.
  • Please follow the discussion RUBRIC to make sure you have addressed the discussion criteria.

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G147/ART1204 Section 02 Art Appreciation – Thesis, Sketch and Outline

G147/ART1204 Section 02 Art Appreciation – Thesis, Sketch and Outline

For this piece of the Course Project, you will submit your artwork choice along with a quick sketch of the art, your thesis, and outline as a single 1-2 page Word document. This outline will be a guide of how your paper will flow. Part of your grade will be determined by how well you follow this outline.

Once you have identified the work of art you want to write about, do a brief sketch of it. Make notes within the sketch about the elements and principles of design you see, and any other feelings and impressions you have. Take a photo of your sketch, to be turned in with your paper.

You will NOT be graded on your drawing skills for this sketch! This is just a perceptual exercise to help you really see the details of your chosen work of art. The process of sketching helps you see the work on a deeper level and will make the writing process much easier.

After your sketch is completed, begin your outline following the format below.

  1. Introduction
  1. Body
  • List the Elements of Art and Principles of Design that you see.
  • Name the medium the artist used and any obvious characteristics of the medium.
  • Note the initial reactions, thoughts, and questions you had when first viewing this work.
  1. Conclusion
  • Wrap up the essay by summarizing your thesis. Note any new interpretations of the thesis that emerged.

Requirements: 2 pages not including cover and reference pages

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Leadership exercise

Leadership exercise

The leadership exercise activity is based on the physical characteristics and resources of a real facility located in New York City. The exercise focuses on an operational and planning scenario and includes the development of an Exercise Report also known as an After-Action Report (AAR). Links and materials, including the required report template, are provided in the attachments below.

Note: Since the AAR are completed utilizing a template, compliance with the most recent approved APA format is only required for in-text citations and references.

The AAR is created by incorporating targeted leadership knowledge development, self-assessment assignments, and homeland security or public safety leadership analysis with your observations from the leadership exercise. The AAR represents a personal understanding and plan of public safety leadership based on the course research, lecture content, conferences, reports, the leadership exercise, and your leadership performance. The completed AAR correlates with professional homeland security and public safety leadership best practices, resulting in a tangible product that can become a base for future leadership development.

The AAR will be developed using the provided template and structured to cover all of the following topics:

  • Presentation and discussion of academic and anecdotal resource materials
  • Deconstruction of current homeland security or public safety leadership
  • Identification of acceptable and effective professional homeland security or public safety leadership principles
  • Collation of data from personal leadership self-assessment assignments and Personal Leadership History Report
  • Comparison and contrast of self-assessment data, to include applicability, with best practices and identified leadership principles
  • Presentation and discussion of future personal leadership development and opportunity

To complete this assignment, perform the following tasks:

  • Please first read the Hurricane Chester Exercise Instructions that provides an overview of the assignment.
  • Next, please read the Participant Guide that provides detailed guidance on how to conduct the exercise.
  • If you have any questions on how to complete the exercise, please contact the course faculty.
  • Once you fully understand the assignment, please conduct the exercise by reading the HMLS 495 Exercise Slides.
  • Finally, please complete the Hurricane Chester Exercise Report Template.
  • Remember to turn in the completed report on time.

Requirements: 4 pages

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Common Digestive Conditions

Common Digestive Conditions

Common Digestive ConditionsCommon Digestive Conditions? In everyone’s life, they must have experienced a digestion disorder, whether it is a lingering gastrointestinal ailment requiring lifestyle change or is a meal that doesn’t agree with our stomach. According to Peyskensn & Penaloza (2017), digestive problems are extremely common in people afflicting one in five people.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

When stomach bile or acid flows into the food pipe causing lining irritation, it causes gastroesophageal. Many people experience heartburn, but when it occurs regularly, it indicates a sign of gastroesophageal disease. The disease mostly presents as heartburn which, when uncontrolled, can lead to lining wearing of the esophagus, leading to bleeding. Poddar (2019) notes that the condition can also cause extreme chest pains, which sometimes are mistaken for heart attack.

The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) opens to allow food in the stomach and closes to stop stomach acids from flowing back into the esophagus in a normal digestion. However, when the LES is weak and relaxed, it lets the stomach acids flow back in the throat, which causes heartburn hence GERD. One can control the disease by taking two hours to rest after a meal before bedtime. However, over-the-counter medication can help reduce the occasional heartburns, but chronic ones need prescriptions and sometimes surgery.

Chronic Diarrhea

Another form of Common Digestive Conditions is Diarrhea. It can be termed as loose stool, which is impossible to ignore. Diarrhea that happens more than twice and lasts for a week can be a medical concern. It can be caused by different things, including the inability of the body to absorb food, infection, an endocrine disorder, or a disease, for example, irritable bowel syndrome. Sometimes, some medications cause diarrhea as a side effect. However, chronic diarrhea may indicate a more serious problem that needs more professional medical attention. The underlying cause of diarrhea should be treated as quickly as possible, which needs to eliminate some foods and medicine and improve hygiene.

Chronic Constipation

Also Chronic Constipation is a Common Digestive Condition. It occurs when people get fewer than three bowel movements in a week or longer where the stools are hard and difficult to pass. Some other symptoms of constipation include straining when passing stool and feeling as though there is a blockage in the rectum. There are no evident research results for the cause of chronic constipation.

Common Digestive Conditions

However, colon or rectum blockage, nerve problems around the colon or rectum, difficulty with elimination muscles, and hormonal changes in the body can cause chronic constipation. Although occasional constipation is normal, some people experience chronic constipation that interferes with their normal daily life. The condition can be treated by taking lots of water and fluids, managing stress, staying active, taking foods low in fiber, and creating regular bowel movements.


Another Common Digestive Conditions is Gastroenteritis. It is a short-term illness sometimes called the stomach flu caused by a bacterial or viral infection and swelling of the digestive system. The disease has symptoms like diarrhea, fever, stomach pains, crumbing, vomiting, nausea, and headache. The most common cause of the disease is a virus, including rotavirus and norovirus. Other causes of the disease can be through contact with an infected person, consuming contaminated food, and being unhygienic. The best way to treat the infection is by taking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration, maintaining hygiene to prevent the spread of the infection. As for children, standard vaccination of rotavirus should be followed.

Stomach Ulcers as a Common Digestive Conditions

Moreover, Common Digestive Conditions include stomach Ulcers. Ulcers are breaks or holes formed at the lining of the upper parts of the small intestine or the stomach that contact enzymes stomach acids. The stomach has acids that help in food digestion and protects the stomach against microbes. Also, the stomach produces a thick layer of mucus which protects the body tissues from the acid. However, when the protective mucus becomes inactive and ineffective, the acid starts damaging the body tissues causing ulcers (Almurshidi, & Abu-Naser, 2017).  The disease has some symptoms which include, indigestion, causing stomach discomforts, heartburn, and GERD.

Other symptoms include bloating, burping, nausea, and vomiting, and sometimes weight loss. One can prevent the disease by taking many fruits and vegetables, foods high in soluble fiber, probiotics, and not consuming alcohol frequently.  It can be treated by protecting what causes more acid in the body. However, surgical treatments can be done when one experiences consistent bleeding, re-occurring ulcers, and lack of bowel movements.

In conclusion, the digestive system works as a tool for breaking down food. However, if some parts of the system are not working properly, digestive disorders may develop, such as chronic constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcers, gallstones, or diarrhea. Some digestive disorders, when not treated, can cause serious problems.

Common Digestive Conditions References

Almurshidi, S. H., & Abu-Naser, S. S. (2017). Stomach disease intelligent tutoring system.

Peyskensn, L., & Penaloza, A. (2017). Common digestive symptoms as a rare presentation of prostatic cancer. New Horizons in Clinical Case Reports, 1, 21.

Poddar, U. (2019). Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children. Pediatrics and international child health, 39(1), 7-12.


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Common Digestive Conditions



Obesity Obesity is a medical problem caused by excessive body fat, which also increases the risks of getting other complicated diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain cancer diseases. It has become one of the leading health problems and the most neglected by people. There are many reasons why people have a problem with losing weight.

Usually, obesity to some people is inherited from parents affecting the amount of body fat one stores in their body and how the fat is distributed. Environmental and physiological factors, physical activities combined with poor diet can also lead to obesity (Chuang, Chiu, Lee, Liu, Tsao, et al., 2016). Eating diets rich in vegetables and fruits can reduce obesity risks compared to least pro-vegetarian people who consume foods rich in animal foods like meat and eggs. Plant-based diets are associated with reduced body fats and weight, which is an intervention to obesity.

In most cases, obesity is caused by taking in more calories than one can burn through physical activities and exercise, which are stored in the body as fats. Those calories are caused by consuming unhealthy diets, which are more non-vegetarian products, including fast foods and meat. Also, liquid calories are caused by high-calorie drinks like alcohol and soft drinks, which add many calories to the body.

Diets rich in vegetables can help weight loss because they focus on foods with low-calories like fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, seeds, soy, and nutrient-dense. However, being a vegetarian does not mean consuming fewer calories as some vegetables like soy cheese, snack bars, cookies, and pie contain many calories. In simple form, people should watch more on what they consume, and do exercise. There has been a drastic increase in people suffering from obesity and obesity-related diseases in the last couple of decades, and that’s why states, communities, and the federal government is putting emphasis on people consumption healthier food and doing a lot of exercises.


Vegetarians reduce the chances of being obese by bringing different benefits to the body, including weight loss. Switching to a diet rich in vegetables helps people lose weight as they don’t consume many calories. It also lowers the level of cholesterol in the body as vegetables are easily absorbed. Foods rich in vegetables help people not only from getting obese but lowers the chances of getting cancer diseases; research shows that people who consume vegetable foods have lower chances of getting cancer than non-vegetarian people.

It is true, people who base much on vegetable foods have lower chances of getting obese. However, alongside vegetarian foods, people should also get the right number of calories from the food, focusing on various fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Also, limit processed foods and alcohol intake, avoid added sugars and unhealthful fats, and participate in an overall healthful lifestyle.


According to Chuang, S. Y., Chiu, T. H., Lee, C. Y., Liu, T. T., Tsao, C. K., Hsiung, C. A., & Chiu, Y. F. (2016) argues that vegetarian diet reduces the risk of hypertension independent of abdominal obesity and inflammation: a prospective study. Journal of hypertension, 34(11), 2164-2171.

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What is autism?

What is autism?

What is autism?

What is autism? Autism is a wide range of disorders that impair speech, non-verbal communication, and social behaviors. According to the Centers for Disease Control, about 1 in 54 children are diagnosed with autism (Lord et al., 2018). The condition affects the brain development of an individual, which influences how they relate with others. It creates problems when interacting with others since communication is a challenge. Repetitive behavioral patterns can also characterize the disorder. Autism has a wide variety of signs which describe its spectrum.

In answering the question “What is autism,?” there are several subtypes of autism that are caused by different factors, such as genetic and environmental influences. Autism is a spectrum condition with various challenges. The challenges faced by patients with this illness vary, whereby some can live independently while others require more support in daily living than others.

The development of autism can be attributed to sensory sensitivities or other medical issues. Conditions such as seizures, sleep disorders, or gastrointestinal illnesses comprise health issues that lead to autism (Lord et al., 2018). Also, mental health problems such as anxiety, challenges in concentration, and depression can cause autism.

The first symptoms of the illness often occur when an individual is two or three years of age. The early symptoms include decreased eye contact, indifference to their loved ones, and lack of responses to conversations; However, in rare cases, the disease can be diagnosed for a child aged 18 months (Lord et al., 2018). Other children grow normal until later years in life when they suddenly lose interest in activities, become withdrawn, and fail in language abilities. The level of severity for the children can vary from low functioning to high functioning. It is recommended that interventions for the conditions be applied early since it results in positive impacts later in life.

Children with autism have a high risk for the illness if there is a family member with autism. There are certain combinations of genes that increase the risk of a child being diagnosed with autism. The disease can be hereditary for autism spectrum disorders such as fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome (Muhle, Trentacoste, and Rapin, 2014).

Genetic mutations can also raise the vulnerability to the illness, although this can also occur spontaneously. It is because autism impacts the growth of brain cells and communication. Autism is likely to occur four times more in boys compared to girls. Early detection for the illness improves the quality of life for children with autism.

No medical test is used to diagnose the sickness; instead, how the child speaks, and acts is analyzed based on their age and comparison to others. In 2016, about 2 in 1000 persons globally were estimated to have autism. However, the rate of autism diagnosis in the United States is high at 0.7%.


Muhle, R., Trentacoste, S. V., & Rapin, I. (2014). The genetics of autism. Pediatrics113(5), e472-e486.

Lord, C., Elsabbagh, M., Baird, G., & Veenstra-Vanderweele, J. (2018). Autism spectrum disorder. The Lancet392(10146), 508-520.

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What is autism?

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome 

Irritable Bowel Syndrome 

Irritable bowel syndrome is a problem experienced by many people that affects the large intestine. Not all people have signs and symptoms as they can control them by managing diet, stress, and lifestyle. However, others have symptoms like bloating, abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, or diarrhea, which needs to be managed for quite some time. In others, the bowel movement changes in appearance, while others change how often they have bowel movements (Varjú, Farkas, Hegyi, Garami, Szabó, et al., 2017).

Sometimes the IBS becomes more persistent to the point of seeing a doctor as they may indicate a sign of more severe conditions like cancer. Such symptoms include night diarrhea, weight loss, experiencing bleeding, which is a symptom of severe conditions like anal fissures, hemorrhoids, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Other serious signs include unexplained vomiting, having difficulties swallowing, and persistent pain that isn’t relieved by bowel movements or gas.

IBS is caused mainly by intestinal muscle contraction, whereby if they are more robust and last longer than usual, they can cause bloating and diarrhea. Also, when the intestinal contractions are weaker, they slow down food passage leading to hard and dry stool, causing bleeding. Abnormalities in the nervous digestion system can cause poor coordination between the intestines and the brain, leading to an overreaction in the normal digestion process, which in return causes abdominal discomforts when passing gas or stool. These abnormalities cause pain, diarrhea, and constipation.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome can also be caused by severe infections caused by bacteria or viruses, spreading to the large intestines. People who have experienced a lot of stress, especially during childhood, tend to have Irritable Bowel Syndrome symptoms. Also, the intestines have viruses that lay a crucial role in people’s health. Changes in those gut microbes can cause IBS.

There is no proven treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. However, medications manage and relieve the symptoms (Moayyedi, Andrews, MacQueen, Korownyk, Marsiglio, et al., 2019). Most home remedies for controlling IBS include physical exercise, eating smaller meals, minimizing stress, avoiding spicy and deep-fried foods, and taking probiotics to relieve gas. However, if the problem persists, some medication can help relieve the problem, including Alosetron, which slows the waste movements and relaxes the colon. Eluxadoline, Rifaximin, Lubiprostone, and Linaclotide are used to control muscle spasms, constipation and ease pain.



  1. Cramping and abdominal pains related to abnormal passing bowel movement
  2. Different bowel movement appearance
  3. Changes in bowel movement occasions
  4. Night diarrhea, weight loss, and bleeding during bowel movements
  5. Unexplained vomiting, difficulties swallowing, and persistent abdominal pain.


  1. Contractions of muscles in the intestine.
  2. Nervous system abnormalities
  3. Severe bacterial infection
  4. Continuous exposure to stress.
  5. Changes in bacteria’s found in the intestines.


  1. Home remedies include participation in regular exercises, consuming smaller meals, avoiding spicy foods, minimizing stress, and taking probiotics.
  2. Hospital medication to relieve the disease includes Eluxadoline, Rifaximin, Lubiprostone, Linaclotide, and Alosetron used to control muscle spasms, constipation, and ease pain.





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strengths and contributions of SDSU Alumni

Strengths and contributions of SDSU Alumni

Learning Goal: I’m working on a writing project and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Please submit a two page, typed double spaced essay addressing this question: SDSU Month promotes the strengths and contributions of SDSU Alumni to the San Diego community and global society. How will your SDSU education help you to become a “mind that moves the world?”

Requirements: two pages (meeting assignment requirement)

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Lifespan Development in the News

 Lifespan Development in the news

Lifespan Development in the news

STEP 1: Find a popular news article from within the past five years that reports on the results of a research study related to lifespan development. This should not be a blog entry, but a published article from a news source such as Time Magazine, The New York Times, Newsweek, NPR, CNN, Fox News, etc. A great place to look is the APA’s Psychology news portal. Read through the article and ensure that it is descriptive and sufficiently long enough in order to draw conclusions from the original research mentioned.

STEP 2: Go find the psychological study or studies that are mentioned in the news report. Sometimes those are not freely available online, so you may have to track down the original study through the library’s website or goggle scholar. The study should have been performed within the past five years.

STEP 3: Write a paper between 500-750 words that:

Requirements: 500-750

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Review the challenge and recommend a strategy

Review the challenge and recommend a strategy

The final section of the Capstone Paper must review the challenge and recommend a strategy for addressing the challenge based on research. Along with the strategy, define the potential financial or budgetary impact the strategy might present, including the additional costs that may arise if the problem or issue is not resolved effectively. Describe the metrics that the organization might consider for measuring the outcomes of the strategy utilized to resolve the challenge.

The entire paper will consist of the sections written during Weeks 1, 2, 3, and 5. It should begin with an executive summary, which is an abbreviated capture of the entire paper and as such should touch upon all major points while engaging the reader. The paper should close with a proper conclusion summarizing the concepts discussed in the paper. Remember, the summary is not a reiteration of the assignment requirements but a focus on the concepts and strategies related to the defined organizational challenge.

  • Your paper must be at a minimum of 10 pages in length (excluding the title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style guidelines as outlined in the Writing Center. In addition, you must use at least five scholarly sources to support and defend theories, informational resources to define and describe the organization, and the course text for further support. Remember to incorporate information that you have learned from this course as well as your personal experience. Review feedback received on assignments submitted during Weeks 1, 2, and 3. All revisions, corrections, or recommendations must be included in the final paper.

The Capstone Paper

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Human Rights Violations in Turkey: FOA & FOE

Human Rights Violations in Turkey: FOA & FOE

EU criticises Turkey over human rights and democracy - BBC NewsFreedom of expression (FOE) and freedom of association (FOA) are critical to the sustenance of democracy within a given country. Violation of these two freedoms threatens democracy. Turkey is regularly rebuked and castigated for various human rights violations (Cinar & Sirin, 2017). The country’s authoritarian leadership is well known for censoring and criminalizing speech. This censorship extends beyond the traditional forms of communication to include social media and the internet. Protesting and picketing is a very dangerous endeavor in Turkey, considering the various restrictions placed on the freedom of association. Just to show the scale of the human rights violations in this country, out of the 20,657 judgments passed by the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), sixteen percent of them list Turkey as the defendant (Cinar & Sirin, 2017). As long as authoritarian leadership continues in Turkey, the numerous violations of the freedoms of expression and association will become a regular feature within the country.


Turkey first earned recognition as a country from the international community in 1923. This came after the War of Independence, which lasted from 1919-1923. Mustafa Kemal Pasha led this war and sought to get rid of the terms espoused under the Treaty of Sevres (Dural, 2012). The war was quite intense, but Mustafa’s troops were making incredible progress, considering by the end of 1922 the French, Greek, and Armenian troops within Turkish territory, had been expelled, with the Turkish Provisional Government, situated in Ankara, working towards getting rid of the traditional Ottoman ideals and becoming a republic. Within the same year, the country’s Parliament formally got rid of the Sultanate, putting an end to over six hundred years of Ottoman rule (Dural, 2012).

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In 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne replaced the Treaty of Sevres, and as such, officially recognized the sovereignty of the newly created Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Pasha then became the country’s first president (Dural, 2012). Turkey is a member of the United Nations and joined the organization on June 26, 1945. Even though Turkey had moved from a monarchy to a republic, democratic ideals were still not recognized and adhered to, with the country operating under a single-party government. However, one year after joining the UN, the country had its first multiparty elections. Turkey has had its fair share of military-driven coup d’état in its attempt to embrace multiparty democracy.

The first coup took place in 1960, followed by another one in 1980. Modern-day Turkey straddles between Europe and Asia (Dural, 2012). The current government is under the leadership of Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Even though Istanbul is the country’s largest city, Ankara is its capital city. The fact that approximately eighty percent of the country’s inhabitants are Turkish makes it reasonable that it would recognize Turkish as its official language. However, there are other languages spoken in the country, including; Kurmaji, Zaza, Laz, Kabardian, and Arabic. Like most other countries around the globe, Turkey has numerous ethnic groups living within its territory, such as the Turks, Kurds, Arabs, Albanians, Laz, Circassians, and the Bosniaks (Dural, 2012).

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The country has an estimated total population of slightly over eighty-three million people. Turkey rests on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia. Greece and Bulgaria border the country on its northwest side, with Georgia lying on the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran bordering it to the east, and finally, Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.  According to a study conducted in 2016 by Ipsos, eighty-two percent of the country’s citizens were Muslims, predominantly the Sunni faction. Thirteen percent were religiously unaffiliated, while the remaining portions were Christians and Jews. Religion, especially its place within public life, has been the source of intense debate, considering it was founded on a secular basis. For quite some time, Muslim women were not allowed to do the hijab when in school or any government building because the hijab got equated to political Islam. However, the government softened this stand and, in 2011, allowed university students to wear the hijab. In 2013 Muslim women were permitted to enter government buildings wearing the hijab. Turkey is one of the countries with the highest adult literacy rate across the world. As of 2011, ninety-four percent of the adults were literate.

The country’s membership in the European Union places it not only under the jurisdiction of the European Union Court of Human Rights but also under the union’s Parliament (Cinar & Sirin, 2017). The European Parliament exercised this jurisdiction on March 13, 2019, when it requested countries within the European Union to suspend any accession talks they may be having with Turkey, in light of the country’s rampant human rights violations. In 2013, the country’s government faced intense protests throughout Turkey, fuelled by the plan to destroy Gezi Park. People were protesting against the replacement of the park with a shopping mall. Even though this was the trigger, the protests soon evolved and begun covering issues centered on violations of the freedoms of expression and association (Cinar & Sirin, 2017).

By September 2013, eight individuals lost their lives, over eight thousand five hundred people suffered various injuries due to violent measures rolled out by the government to shut down the protests (Cinar & Sirin, 2017). Koc Holding is one of the companies that supported the protestors, and as such, gave them sanctuary within their premises. Once the government realized this, they slapped the organization with a tax investigation. The culmination of these widespread protests was the unsuccessful coup d’état of July 15, 2016. Erdogan’s government reacted poorly to this and responded with mass purges characterized by numerous human rights violations (Cinar & Sirin, 2017).

FOE and FOA in Turkey

Freedom of Expression

Like most other countries in Europe, Turkey acceded to a couple of international legal instruments that uphold the freedom of expression (Cinar & Sirin, 2017). On August 15, 2000, Turkey accepted to get bound by the dictates of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights; they also did the same thing for the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. These two legal instruments underscore the importance of signatory countries ensuring that their citizens have the freedom to speak and express their opinions and ideas, as long as doing this does not interfere with another individual’s ability to enjoy their fundamental human rights.

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Turkey’s Constitution, under Article 26, accords citizens the freedom of expression (Cinar & Sirin, 2017). Despite the existence of these legal guarantees, Turkish citizens have for a long time suffered due to censorship and criminalization of free speech. Law 765 was the first legal instrument within the country to restrict the freedom of expression. This old penal code remained in force from 1926 until it got replaced by Law 537. Even though the old one got replaced, the new law still maintained some of the restrictions placed on the FOE. Besides Law 537, there are other edicts that do the same thing, such as Law 5816, also known as the offenses against the memory of Ataturk, Press Law, Law on Political Parties, Articles 215, 216, 217 of the Turkish Criminal Code, which criminalizes any offense against public order, and finally the Anti-Terror Law (Cinar & Sirin, 2017).

The country has the highest number of jailed journalists. Almost all these instances of jailed journalists can be attributed to the Anti-Terror Law. The government uses the various provisions outlined in it to label journalists and any other people who speak up as terrorists, arrest them, and then prosecute them. Between 2013 and 2018, over one hundred thousand cases got instituted within Turkey under the auspices of the Prevention of Terrorism Act. Freedom of expression is very important, considering it is the lifeblood of genuine Constitutional democracy, helping keep it vibrant, peaceful, and stable. Whenever citizens of a country feel angry or get frustrated at the performance of any institution of a government, this freedom gives them a platform to speak up and let out their frustrations. By doing this, people are able to calm down and, to some extent, even move on with their lives. More importantly, FOE allows for a vigorous exchange of ideas and promotes accountability.

The Turkish government deprives its citizens of this by restricting their freedom of expression. Human Rights organizations and other non-profits dealing with human rights have not remained silent on the FOE violations taking place in Turkey. On July 21, 2020, the Human Rights Association (iHD), in collaboration with the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (TiHV) and the Initiative for the Freedom of Expression, released a joint report documenting the rampant violations of the FOE in Turkey. Their report outlines various incidences where people’s freedom of expression was violated, with many victims getting detained and arrested. For example, on July 17 in the town of Dersim, law enforcement authorities violently intervened against a group of protestors after a press statement instigated them to protest against the rampant sexual violence meted out against women (Bianet, 2020). By doing this, the government was restricting the protestors’ ability to freely express their dissatisfaction with the sexual attacks targeting women.

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On July 1, the Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTUK) punished Tele1 Channel with a five-day media blackout. This happened after the government took offense with some sentiments expressed regarding the Directorate of Religious Affairs during a show known as “Karanliktan Aydinliga” (Bianet, 2020). According to a statement by Article 19 and Turkey Human Rights Litigation Support Project, FOE is still under threat in Turkey, with law enforcement authorities using Anti-Terror Laws to detain, arrest, harass journalists, human rights watch groups personnel, political opponents, lawyers, and academicians. (Article 19, 2020). This continues to happen despite the numerous adverse judgments against the Turkish government at the ECtHR, whereby the court pointed out how various laws within the country are continuously used to violate FOE, and as such foster dissent.

Criminal remedies for these violations are almost non-existent in Turkey, considering the slow and inconsistent decision-making by the country’s Constitutional Court (Article 19, 2020). All this can get attributed to the authoritarian government in place. The Executive, under the leadership of Erdogan, has centralized most of the political and constitutional authority, taking away Legislative and Juridical autonomy. As such, courts are increasingly becoming wary of handing out directives that may displease or anger the president, an aspect that makes them ill-equipped to handle FOE violation cases (Article 19, 2020). Political interference is very high within the Turkish Judicial system. Politically motivated prosecutions are quickly becoming the norm, with anybody speaking against the government immediately getting detained, arrested, and prosecuted. According to a report by Amnesty International, the country’s members of Parliament could soon give the government more censorship powers, especially within the digital environment (2020). The MPs are expected to pass a set of laws Amnesty International classifies as “draconian social media laws” that will allow the government to censor online content and even prosecute social media users (Amnesty International, 2020).

Freedom of Association

The same international legal instruments that require the Turkish government to uphold the freedom of expression also place a similar obligation on the government when it comes to the freedom of association (Cinar & Sirin, 2017). Basically, FOA encompasses the freedom people enjoy to organize, form, and participate in groups. This freedom is an integral part of any society, considering it allows people to track the human rights situation within the country. Without this freedom, people would not be allowed to form political parties, trade unions, NGOs, and other associations. The ability and capacity for citizens to come together and unite for a common purpose is critical in the fight against human rights violations (Cinar & Sirin, 2017). For example, when the draconian social media censorship laws in Turkey take effect, people should be allowed to form associations and protest against such a move.

Unfortunately, Turkey is one of the countries that heavily restricts the freedom of association. The country’s Constitution under Article 34 recognizes FOA, and as such, people seeking to come together do not have to inform authorities before they do this (Fontenille, 2019). Despite such an allowance, the Turkish government has over the years disbursed meetings for lack of requisite permission, even though the law allows people to freely associate without having to seek permission. Although the country has a relatively long history of restricting the freedom of association, the situation worsened after the unsuccessful coup d’etat of 2016 (Fontenille, 2019).

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According to a report by Amnesty International, Erdogan’s government instituted blanket bans on all assemblies across the country (Amnesty International, 2019). With such a directive in place, law enforcement authorities then began violently breaking up any assembly, arresting and detaining members of human rights watch groups and other associations, intimating they support terrorism. For example, in November 2017, the Ankara governorate imposed a ban on all LGBTIQ events. However, this ban got overturned in May 2019 by a court. In response to this, Middle East Technical University (METU) students organized a pride march within the institution (Amnesty International, 2019). Despite the fact that the ban no longer existed, the university’s management banned the event and called in law enforcement personnel to break up the March. As expected, these officers used unnecessary and excessive force to do this.

In March this year, local authorities in the city of Istanbul banned the International Women’s Day March using tear gas and other violent means to shut down the March (Amnesty International, 2019). Any person from the opposition, be it Kurdish women, mothers, prisoners, or socialists, would more often than not get arrested, with the government pointing to national security and public order offenses. All these actions are geared towards restricting the freedom of association. Even though Turkey ratified ILO Conventions such as Convention 98 that gives workers the right to come together and form unions to advocate for their welfare, the government still finds a way to limit such freedom.

Just as it happens to violations of FOE, the Turkish Judicial system is doing little to elevate the suffering of numerous citizens deprived of their freedom to associate with whomever they please. The government even went ahead and passed a law that would change the landscape and functions of bar associations (Freedom House, 2020). The legal profession in Turkey is one of the remaining politically independent institutions within the country. As such, they provide an independent oversight mechanism, protecting citizens from the excesses of the government. Most legal scholars around the world argue that such a law is an attack on bar-associations freedom of association. The Turkish Parliament passed legislation that altered the structure of these associations.

Initially, lawyers within a province could only be represented by a single bar association (Freedom House, 2020). Such a situation allowed bar associations to gain considerable power and influence not only within their provinces but also nationally. However, the new law seeks to erode such power by allowing multiple bar associations to operate within a single province. The government diluted the power of these associations by artificially creating competition within the Union of Turkish Bar Associations. By eroding their power, the government ensured that members of these associations would not have enough power and influence to challenge the various human rights violations taking place within the country (Freedom House, 2020). Initially, lawyers fighting against the government took comfort in the fact that their bar association would support them, and considering the influence they have, authorities would not mistreat them arbitrarily. However, the new law puts all this at risk, taking away the peoples’ last line of defense against human rights violations.


From the discussion above, it is clear that the Turkish government, under the stewardship of Erdogan, is preventing citizens from enjoying their constitutionally guaranteed freedoms of expression and association. Journalists, personnel from human rights watch groups, political opponents, and even individual protestors can no longer feel free to express their opinion or even come together and work towards a common goal. They fear the government will harass them, detain, and prosecute them. The country’s Judiciary should protect them against the arbitrary exercise of power. However, the lack of independence and political influence from the Executive makes it harder to do this. I believe it is high time the international community, more specifically the United Nations and the European Union, plays an active role in helping bring the dire situation in Turkey to an end. Rather than continuously criticizing the country, the EU and the UN should institute more punitive measures to force human rights compliance within the country. Finally, people should work towards strengthening the country’s Judiciary.


Amnesty International. (2019). Turkey 2019: Annual Report. Retrieve from https://www.amnesty.org/en./countries/europe-and-central-asia/turkey/report-turkey/

Amnesty International. (2020, July). Turkey: Draconian Social Media Law Poses Grave Threat to Freedom of Expression. Retrieve from https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/07/turkey-draconian-social-media-law-poses-grave-threat-to-freedom-of-expression/

Article 19. (2020, March 2). Turkey: Failure to Act on European Court Judgements put Freedom of Expression at Risk. Retrieved from https://www.article19.org/resources/turkey-failure-to-act-on-european-court-judgements-puts-freedom-of-expression-at-risk/

Bianet. (2020, August 21). Report on Freedom of Expression Violations in Turkey in July. Retrieved from https://m.bianet.org/english/human-rights/229393-report-on-freedom-of-expression-violations-in-turkey-in-July.

Cinar, OH & Sirin, T. (2017). Turkey’s Human Rights Agenda. Research and Policy on Turkey, 2(2), 133-143.

Dural, B. (2012). The Leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atataturk: Turkish Independence War Introduction. European Journal of Scientific Research, 8(21), 184-200.

Fontenille, M. (2019, June 7). In Turkey, the Right to Freedom of Association and Unionization Remains Under Threat. Equal Times. Retrieved from https://www.equaltimes.org/in-turkey-the-right-to-freedom-of?lang=en#.X8lgSx6Ear_

Freedom House. (2020, July 28). Turkey: New Law on Bar Associations an Attack in Freedom of Association. Retrieved from https://freedomhouse.org/article/turkey-new-bar-associations-attack-freedom-association.

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The Khalsa

The Khalsa

The Khalsa of Guru Sahiban | SikhNetKhalsa is an order that was established by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699 during the Baisakhi festival. Khalsa means pure, and the initiation of Sikhs into the order was done in a ceremony that involved taking sweetened water referred to as Amrit. The Sikh men who were initiated into the Khalsa order adopted the name Singh as their surname while women adopted Kaur’s name. The Sikhs who were initiated into the Khalsa were supposed to uphold the highest morality and codes of conduct. Khalsa started with the baptism of five members by Guru in public, which was followed by the initiation of many others in the Khalsa order.

Singh, Nikky-Guninder Kaur. The Birth of the Khalsa: A feminist re-memory of Sikh Identity. SUNY Press, 2005.

Singh explains the origin of the Khalsa that formed the basis of the Sikhism religion. The author also discusses how Guru Gobind Singh established the Khalsa in 1699 during the Baisakhi festivities by preparing the Amrit and the five men’s baptism to join the family of the Khalsa (Singh xi). The author proceeds to discuss how the Khalsa became an integral part of the Sikh, although it is also a minority proportion of the Sikh who are formally baptized into the Khalsa order. According to the author, all Sikh women and men trace their name, personality, prayers, and religious rites, including what they do and the way they wear to the birth of the Khalsa in 1699. The approach taken by the author of this article, Singh Nikky-Guninder Kaur, is a female perspective (Singh xviii). Singh argues that men have only done the recording of the event of the birth of the Khalsa. As a result, the Sikh Khalsa men are perceived as hypermasculine subjects, while Sikh Khalsa women are perceived as silent and passive objects in the birth of the Khalsa. Additionally, this has led to Sikh women being subjected to a cultural burden that is centuries old. The author also argues that the dramatic Baisakhi event in the birth of the Khalsa does not recognize the role of the Sikh women because the society during the times of Guru Gobind Singh was patriarchal.

McLeod, Hew. “The Five Ks of the Khalsa Sikhs.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 128.2 (2008): 325-331.

In this article, Hew Mcleod discusses how Sikh men are recognizable by their uncut beards and hair and the wearing of turbans. The author also indicates that in the United States and many other countries, the wearing of turbans by Sikh men has made many people brand them as Muslims. As a result, the Sikhs in the United States were more vulnerable even than the Muslims following the 9/11 Twin Towers destruction (McLeod 325). This was after a Sikh man was gunned down for being mistaken to be a Muslim who were associated with the terrorism behind the attack. The author proceeds to provide a description of how the Sikh Khalsa men can be identified by describing how the turbans they wear can be identified. However, it is difficult in most instances to differentiate between Sikh Khalsa women from the Punjabi Hindu women.

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Only people who are well informed can recognize the Sikh Khalsa women by associating them with the male Sikh Khalsa. The author of this article explains the origin of the Five Ks in Khalsa or the five Khalsa symbols and how an observer can recognize a Sikh Khalsa since many of those living overseas are no longer wearing turbans and are cutting their beards (McLeod 326). The author indicates that many Sikhs Khalsa do not observe the traditions and the number of Khalsa men who cut their beards and do not wear a turban is larger than those who follow the tradition. According to the author, it has become difficult to recognize a Sikh Khalsa by their appearance since the Five Ks of the Sikh Khalsa established by Guru Gobind Singh concern only the outside appearance (McLeod 328). The author of the article indicates that despite the Five Ks being the major way to identify a Sikh Khalsa, many of the Khalsa do not follow the tradition.

Syan, Hardip Singh. “Debating Revolution: Early eighteenth-century Sikh public philosophy on the formation of the Khalsa.” Modern Asian Studies (2014): 1096-1133.

In this article, Hardip Singh Syan analyzes the public debate that took place among Delhi’s Sikh community after Guru Gobind Singh established the Khalsa. This debate and its details were expressed in a Sikh text referred to as Sri Gur Sobha written in the early eighteenth century (Syan1096). The text explains the division among Delhi’s Sikhs into anti-Khalsa and pro-Khalsa factions. This division created a conflict that led to the persecution of Delhi’s Khalsa Sikhs. The author examines how the conflict occurred and how it reflects wider socioeconomic and political processes in Sikh society and in early modern India (Syan1097). The author also discusses the establishment of the Khalsa order, whereby the first five members to be initiated into Khalsa had the willingness to sacrifice their lives for Guru Gobind Singh. The author takes the approach of examining how the establishment of the Khalsa order did not only add the rich religious landscape in India but also associated with political ambitions that challenged Mughal’s authority in the Punjab region (Syan1098). According to the author, Khalsa Sikhism was associated with the notions of soldierliness and sovereignty that are clear in the Khalsa’s initiation ceremony. Becoming Khalsa was not a process of merely displaying faith in Guru Gobind Singh by wearing a specific dress code. It was a complex process that required devotion to the Guru in forming a militant organization of righteousness that was added to the religious community (Syan 1104).

Robinson, Catherine Anne. “Raj Karega Khalsa (the Khalsa shall reign): the legacy of Tat Khalsa in portrayals of the Khalsa, the impact on Sikh studies and implications for Sikhism in education.” Religions of South Asia 1.1 (2007): 65-80.

In this article, Catherine Anne Robinson explains how Khalsa tends to be a representation of Sikhism. The author provides an explanation of the origin of the Khalsa and the elements that define true Khalsa. The author also indicates the way Tat Khalsa or true Khalsa has influenced teaching and research in Sikhism by examining the history of Sikh studies (Robinson 65). In the article, Catherine Anne Robinson demonstrates how Khalsa’s current form was shaped through activities that campaigned for true Khalsa in the early twentieth and late nineteenth centuries. According to Robinson, the traditionalist Sikh ideology perceived Sikhism as embedded in Hinduism. Additionally, being a member of the Khalsa order was not a privilege over other allegiances and affiliations as an element of the true Sikh Khalsa (Robinson 68). However, Khalsa has been reformed and has profoundly influenced the Sikh ideology to become a significant differentiating element between Sikhism and Hinduism. This author takes an approach of critical reflection of how Khalsa in Sikhism is represented in education. The author examines the origin of the Khalsa ideology and how it has evolved to become the identity of the Sikhs (Robinson 68). The author provides scholarly views on how the standard version of establishing the Khalsa order is featured in Sikhism.

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Pilgrimage, H. A. Y., J. “The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of World Religions.”

In this article, the author explains the topic of Khalsa, whereby it describes Khalsa as the Sikh community in which the members have gone through formal initiation into the Khalsa order (Pilgrimage 176). The author explains the establishment of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh in a ceremony that had the intention of turning the Sikhs into a military organization that was willing and ready to defend their faith and identity. The author describes the ceremony of initiating Sikhs into the Khalsa through baptism using sweetened water. The author also indicates how the Khalsa Sikhs were required to adhere to the stipulated code of behavior, including caring for the needy, maintaining marriage vows, and courage in conflict. The author further discusses how Sikh Khalsa men were recognizable in public by not cutting their beards or hair, wearing donning clothes and a steel bracelet on their right wrists, and crying a small dagger (Pilgrimage 176). This author takes the approach of providing a description of how Khalsa Sikhs were not hiding their faith and how they had to learn how to maintain their pride in public. They had to be ready to defend their identity and religion. Men had to adopt the name Singh in their surname, and women adopted the name Kaur.

Comparing the findings of the article, including their approaches

The findings of the five articles analyzed have various similarities despite the scholars using different approaches. In all the articles, the authors have discussed the establishment of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh. All the scholars of the analyzed articles also discuss the initiation of the Sikhs into the Khalsa. The authors also provide a description of the features that make Sikh Khalsa men recognizable in public. However, the article by Hew McLeod indicates that all Sikh Khalsa men do not observe these observable features like not cutting their hair and beards and wearing turbans. The articles have differences in the approaches used by each scholar. The article by Singh Nikky-Guninder Kaur takes a female perspective by arguing how the event that led to the birth of the Khalsa does not recognize the role of the Sikh women because the society was patriarchal (Singh xix). The approach taken by Hew McLeod is also different from the rest because it explains how the majority of Sikh Khalsa men are no longer recognizable by wearing turbans and not cutting their hair because this tradition is not observed by all Sikh Khalsa (McLeod 326). The article by Hardip Singh Syan also takes a different perspective by analyzing the public debate among Delhi’s Sikh community after Guru Gobind Singh established the Khalsa. This scholar examines how the establishment of the Khalsa order added to the rich religious landscape in India and associated with political ambitions (Robinson 68). The article by Catherine Anne Robinson also takes a different approach to the topic by examining the origin of the Khalsa ideology and how it has evolved to become the true identity of the Sikhs. The article by Pilgrimage provides a summary of the Khalsa order by discussing how formal initiation is carried out and how Sikh Khalsa men are recognizable in public.

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Reflection on What I Have Learned About How Each Scholar Approaches the Topic

There are several lessons that can be derived from how the various scholars approach the topic of the Khalsa. Among the lessons that I learned is that despite the approaches taken by the various scholars, the Khalsa is depicted as a principle that forms the basis of the Sikhism religion (Pilgrimage 176). I also learned that despite the scholars taking different approaches on the topic, the process of initiation into the Khalsa order had been described in the same way. I also learned that it is only a minority of the Sikhs who are initiated in the Khalsa despite the Khalsa being an integral part of the Sikhism religion. From the approach taken by Hew McLeod, I learned that it is not all the Khalsa Sikh men and women follow the traditions provided by the Five Ks of the Khalsa (McLeod 329) This is because McLeod indicates that the majority of Sikh Khalsa men living overseas cut their hair and beards and do not wear a turbine. The scholars also indicate that the Khalsa was established as a military organization aimed at ensuring that the Khalsa Sikhs defend their identity and faith.


Singh, Nikky-Guninder Kaur. The Birth of the Khalsa: A feminist re-memory of Sikh Identity. SUNY Press, 2005.

McLeod, Hew. “The Five Ks of the Khalsa Sikhs.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 128.2 (2008): 325-331.

Syan, Hardip Singh. “Debating Revolution: Early eighteenth-century Sikh public philosophy on the formation of the Khalsa.” Modern Asian Studies (2014): 1096-1133.

Robinson, Catherine Anne. “Raj Karega Khalsa (the Khalsa shall reign): the legacy of Tat Khalsa in portrayals of the Khalsa, the impact on Sikh studies and implications for Sikhism in education.” Religions of South Asia 1.1 (2007): 65-80.

Pilgrimage, H. A. Y., J. “The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of World Religions.”


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